The books and other materials listed here were used during the writing of Hitler's Raid to Save Mussolini. Many of them would make excellent additions to any World War II collection. Some are particularly important to an understanding of Operation Oak (the mission to find and rescue Mussolini), the Hitler-Mussolini relationship, and the history of the European Axis powers.
PUBLISHED DOCUMENTARY MATERIAL
Documents on German Foreign Policy, 1918-1945. Series D, Vol. VI, The Last Months of Peace. London: Her Majesty's Stationery Office, 1956.
Documents on German Foreign Policy, 1918-1945. Series D, Vol. VII, The Last Days of Peace. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1956.
Documents on German Foreign Policy, 1918-1945. Series D, Vol. VIII, The War Years. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1954.
Fuehrer Conferences on Matters Dealing with the German Navy, 1943. Washington, DC: U.S. Navy Department, 1947.
Nazi Conspiracy and Aggression. Vol. III. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1946.
Nazi Conspiracy and Aggression. Vol. VIII. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1946.
United States and Italy, 1936-1946: Documentary Record. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1946.
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MEMOIRS, DIARIES, AND LETTERS
Alfieri, Dino. Dictators Face to Face. Translated by David Moore. Westport, CT: Greenwood, 1978.
Badoglio, Pietro. Italy in the Second World War: Memories and Documents. Translated by Muriel Currey. Westport, CT: Greenwood, 1976.
Bradley, Omar N. A Soldier's Story. New York: Henry Holt, 1951.
Butcher, Harry C. My Three Years with Eisenhower. New York: Simon & Schuster, 1946.
Churchill, Winston S. Closing the Ring. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1951.
Ciano, Edda Mussolini. My Truth. Translated by Eileen Finletter. New York: William Morrow, 1977.
Ciano, Galeazzo. Diary, 1937-1943. New York: Enigma, 2002.
Ciano, Galeazzo. The Ciano Diaries, 1939-1943. Edited by Hugh Gibson. Safety Harbor, FL: Simon, 2001.
Doenitz, Karl. Memoirs: Ten Years and Twenty Days. Translated by R. H. Stevens and David Woodward. Cambridge, MA: Da Capo, 1997.
Dollmann, Eugen. The Interpreter. Translated by J. Maxwell Brownjohn. London: Hutchinson, 1967.
Eisenhower, Dwight D. Crusade in Europe. Garden City, NY: Doubleday, 1948.
Goebbels, Joseph. The Goebbels Diaries, 1942-1943. Edited and translated by Louis P. Lochner. Garden City, NY: Doubleday, 1948.
Hitler, Adolf. Mein Kampf. Translated by Ralph Manheim. New York: Houghton Mifflin, Mariner, 1999.
Hoettl, Wilhelm. The Secret Front: The Story of Nazi Political Espionage. Translated by R. H. Stevens. New York: Frederick A. Praeger, 1954.
Irving, David. The Secret Diaries of Hitler's Doctor. New York: Macmillan, 1983.
Junge, Traudl. Until the Final Hour: Hitler's Last Secretary. Edited by Melissa Müller and translated by Anthea Bell. New York: Arcade, 2004.
Keitel, Wilhelm. The Memoirs of Field-Marshal Keitel. Edited by Walter Gorlitz and translated by David Irving. London: William Kimber, 1965.
Kesselring, Albert. The Memoirs of Field-Marshal Kesselring. Translated by Lynton Hudson. London: William Kimber, 1953.
Liddell Hart, B.H. The Rommel Papers. Translated by Paul Findlay. New York: Da Capo, 1953.
Maugeri, Franco. From the Ashes of Disgrace. Edited by Victor Rosen. New York: Reynal and Hitchcock, 1948.
Mussolini, Benito. My Rise and Fall. New York: Da Capo, 1998.
Mussolini, Benito. The Mussolini Memoirs, 1942-1943. Edited by Raymond Klibansky and translated by Frances Lobb. London: Orion, Phoenix, 2000.
Radl, Karl. Die Blitzbefreiung Mussolinis: Mit Skorzeny am Gran Sasso. Selent: Pour le Mérite, 1996.
Ribbentrop, Joachim von. The Ribbentrop Memoirs. Translated by Oliver Watson. London: Weidenfeld and Nicolson, 1954.
Schellenberg, Walter. The Schellenberg Memoirs. Edited and translated by Louis Hagen. London: Andre Deutsch, 1956.
Schmidt, Paul. Hitler's Interpreter. Edited by R. H. C. Steed. London: William Heinemann, 1951.
Semmler, Rudolf. Goebbels-The Man Next to Hitler. London: Westhouse, 1947.
Skorzeny, Otto. My Commando Operations: The Memoirs of Hitler's Most Daring Commando. Translated by David Johnston. Atglen, PA: Schiffer, 1995.
Skorzeny, Otto. Skorzeny's Secret Missions: War Memoirs of the Most Dangerous Man in Europe. Translated by Jacques Le Clercq. New York: E.P. Dutton, 1950.
Speer, Albert. Inside the Third Reich. Translated by Richard and Clara Winston. New York: Simon & Schuster, Touchstone, 1997.
Starhemberg, Ernst Rudiger. Between Hitler and Mussolini: Memoirs of Ernst Rudiger Prince Starhemberg. New York: Harper, 1942.
Strong, Kenneth. Intelligence at the Top. Garden City, NY: Doubleday, 1969.
Student, Kurt, and Hermann Götzel. Generaloberst Kurt Student und seine Fallschirmjäger: die Erinnerungen des Generaloberst Kurt Student. Friedberg: Podzun-Pallas, 1980.
Summersby, Kay. Eisenhower Was My Boss. Edited by Michael Kearns. New York: Prentice-Hall, 1948.
Trevor-Roper, H.R. The Bormann Letters: The Private Correspondence between Martin Bormann and his Wife from January 1943 to April 1945. Translated by R.H. Stevens. London: Weidenfeld and Nicolson, 1954.
Warlimont, Walter. Inside Hitler's Headquarters, 1939-45. Translated by R. H. Barry. Novato, CA: Presidio, 1964.
Westphal, Siegfried. The German Army in the West. London: Cassell, 1951.
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BOOKS ABOUT HITLER, MUSSOLINI, AND THE AXIS
Bosworth, R.J.B. Mussolini. London: Arnold, 2002.
Bullock, Alan. Hitler: A Study in Tyranny. New York: HarperCollins, HarperPerennial, 1991.
Corvaja, Santi. Hitler and Mussolini: The Secret Meetings. Translated by R.L. Miller. New York: Enigma, 2001.
Davis, Melton S. Who Defends Rome? The Forty-Five Days, July 25-September 8, 1943. New York: Dial, 1972.
Deakin, F.W. The Brutal Friendship: Mussolini, Hitler and the Fall of Italian Fascism. London: Orion, Phoenix, 2000.
Dombrowski, Roman. Mussolini: Twilight and Fall. Translated by H.C. Stevens. London: William Heinemann, 1956.
Hibbert, Christopher. Benito Mussolini: The Rise and Fall of Il Duce. Harmondsworth, England: Penguin, 1975.
Monelli, Paolo. Mussolini: The Intimate Life of a Demagogue. Translated by Brigid Maxwell. New York: Vanguard, 1954.
Mussolini, Rachele. Mussolini: An Intimate Biography by His Widow. New York: Simon & Schuster, Pocket Books, 1977.
Plehwe, Friedrich-Karl von. The End of an Alliance: Rome's Defection from the Axis in 1943. Translated by Eric Mosbacher. London: Oxford University, 1971.
Ridley, Jasper. Mussolini: A Biography. New York: Rowman & Littlefield, Cooper Square, 2000.
Smith, Denis Mack. Mussolini. New York: Random House, Vintage, 1983.
Taylor, A.J.P. The War Lords. London: Hamish Hamilton, 1977.
Toland, John. Adolf Hitler. New York: Random House, Anchor, 1992.
Trevor-Roper, Hugh. The Last Days of Hitler. 6th ed. Chicago: University of Chicago, 1992.
Wiskemann, Elizabeth. The Rome-Berlin Axis: A History of the Relations between Hitler and Mussolini. London: Oxford University, 1949.
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BOOKS ABOUT THE GERMAN PARATROOPERS AND THE LUFTWAFFE
Ailsby, Christopher. Hitler's Sky Warriors: German Paratroopers in Action, 1939-1945. Dulles, VA: Brassey's, 2000.
Edwards, Roger. German Airborne Troops, 1936-45. Garden City, NY: Doubleday, 1974.
Farrar-Hockley, A.H. Student. New York: Ballantine, 1973.
Green, William. The Warplanes of the Third Reich. New York: Galahad, 1990.
Kurtz, Robert. German Paratroopers: Uniforms, Insignia, and Equipment of the Fallschirmjäger in World War II. Atglen, PA: Schiffer, 2000.
Lucas, James. Storming Eagles: German Airborne Forces in World War II. London: Cassell, 2001.
Nasse, Jean-Yves. Green Devils: German Paratroops, 1939-45. Translated by W. Mühlberger, G. Schubert, and Jean-Pierre Villaume. Paris: Histoire & Collections, 1997.
Whiting, Charles. Hunters from the Sky: The German Parachute Corps, 1940-1945. New York: Random House, Ballantine, 1975.
Wood, Tony and Bill Gunston. Hitler's Luftwaffe: A Pictorial History and Technical Encyclopedia of Hitler's Air Power in World War II. London: Salamander, Leisure, 1977.
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BOOKS ABOUT SKORZENY
Foley, Charles. Commando Extraordinary: A Biography of Otto Skorzeny. Costa Mesa, CA: Noontide, 1992.
Infield, Glenn B. Skorzeny: Hitler's Commando. New York: St. Martin's, 1981.
Whiting, Charles. Skorzeny: The Most Dangerous Man in Europe. Revised and expanded ed. Conshohocken, PA: Combined, 1998.
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Barnett, Correlli. Hitler's Generals. New York: Grove, 1989.
Beevor, Antony. Stalingrad. New York: Penguin, 1999.
Beevor, Antony. The Fall of Berlin, 1945. New York: Penguin, 2003.
Beevor, Antony. The Spanish Civil War. New York: Penguin, 2001.
Bessel, Richard. Life in the Third Reich. Oxford: Oxford University, 1987.
Brendon, Piers. The Dark Valley: A Panorama of the 1930s. New York: Knopf, 2000.
Buderi, Robert. The Invention that Changed the World: How a Small Group of Radar Pioneers Won the Second World War and Launched a Technological Revolution. New York: Simon & Schuster, 1996.
Churchill, Winston S. Onwards to Victory. Compiled by Charles Eade. London: Cassell, 1944.
Clark, Martin. Modern Italy, 1871-1995. 2nd ed. London: Longman, 1996.
Craven, Wesley Frank, and James Lea Cate. The Army Air Forces in World War II. Vol. 2, Europe: Torch to Pointblank, August 1942 to December 1943. Chicago: University of Chicago, 1949.
Cross, Robin. The Battle of Kursk: Operation Citadel 1943. London: Penguin, 2002.
De Felice, Renzo. The Jews in Fascist Italy: A History. New York: Enigma, 2001.
Delzell, Charles F. Mussolini's Enemies: The Italian Anti-Fascist Resistance. New York: Howard Fertig, 1974.
D'Este, Carlo. World War II in the Mediterranean. New York: Workman, Algonquin, 1990.
Dulles, Allen. From Hitler's Doorstep: The Wartime Intelligence Reports of Allen Dulles, 1942-1945. University Park, PA: Pennsylvania State University, 1996.
Fellgiebel, Walther-Peer. Elite of the Third Reich: The Recipients of the Knight's Cross of the Iron Cross, 1939-45. Translated by C.F. Colton and Duncan Rogers. Solihull, England: Helion, 2003.
Garland, Albert N., and Howard McGaw Smyth. Sicily and the Surrender of Italy. Washington, DC: Center of Military History (United States Army), 1986.
Gilbert, Felix. Hitler Directs His War: The Secret Records of His Daily Military Conferences. New York: Oxford University, 1950.
Goñi, Uki. The Real Odessa: Smuggling the Nazis to Perón's Argentina. London: Granta, 2002.
Hoffmann, Peter. Hitler's Personal Security: Protecting the Führer, 1921-1945. New York: Da Capo, 2000.
Höhne, Heinz. Canaris. Translated by J. Maxwell Brownjohn. Garden City, NY: Doubleday, 1979.
Irving, David. Hitler's War. London: Focal Point, 2002.
Kahn, David. Hitler's Spies: German Military Intelligence in World War II. Cambridge, MA: Da Capo, 2000.
Katz, Robert. Death in Rome. New York: Macmillan, 1967.
Katz, Robert. The Battle for Rome. New York: Simon & Schuster, 2003.
Keegan, John. The First World War. New York: Knopf, 1999.
Keegan, John. Waffen S.S.: The Asphalt Soldiers. New York: Random House, Ballantine, 1970.
Kessler, Leo. Kommando: Hitler's Special Forces in the Second World War. London: Leo Cooper, 1995.
Knox, MacGregor. Hitler's Italian Allies: Royal Armed Forces, Fascist Regime, and the War of 1940-1943. Cambridge: Cambridge University, 2000.
Kursietis, Andris J. The Wehrmacht at War, 1939-1945: The Units and Commanders of the German Ground Forces during World War II. Soesterberg, Netherlands: Aspekt, 1999.
Lamb, Richard. War in Italy, 1943-1945: A Brutal Story. New York: Da Capo, 1993.
Levenda, Peter. Unholy Alliance: A History of Nazi Involvement with the Occult. 2nd ed. New York: Continuum, 2002.
Liddell Hart, B.H. History of the Second World War. New York: Da Capo, 1999.
Lucas, James. Kommando: German Special Forces of World War Two. London: Cassell, 1998.
Lukacs, John. Five Days in London: May 1940. New Haven, CT: Yale University, Yale Nota Bene, 2001.
Martienssen, Anthony K. Hitler and His Admirals. London: Secker and Warburg, 1948.
McRaven, William H. Spec Ops: Case Studies in Special Operations Warfare: Theory and Practice. Novato, CA: Presidio, 1996.
Moseley, Ray. Mussolini's Shadow: The Double Life of Count Galeazzo Ciano. New Haven, CT: Yale University, 1999.
Muggeridge, Malcolm. Ciano's Diplomatic Papers. Translated by Stuart Hood. London: Odhams, 1948.
Neufeld, Michael J. The Rocket and the Reich: Peenemünde and the Coming of the Ballistic Missile Era. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University, 1996.
Patricelli, Marco. Liberate Il Duce. Milano: Mondadori, 2001.
Rhodes, Richard. Dark Sun: The Making of the Hydrogen Bomb. New York: Simon & Schuster, Touchstone, 1996.
Rhodes, Richard. The Making of the Atomic Bomb. New York: Simon & Schuster, Touchstone, 1988.
Shirer, William L. The Rise and Fall of the Third Reich: A History of Nazi Germany. New York: Simon & Schuster, Touchstone, 1981.
Showell, Jak P. Mallmann. The German Navy in World War Two: A Reference Guide to the Kriegsmarine, 1935-1945. Annapolis, MD: Naval Institute, 1979.
Smith, Denis Mack. Italy and its Monarchy. New Haven, CT: Yale University, 1989.
Smith, Denis Mack. Modern Italy: A Political History. Revised ed. Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan, 1969.
Smith, Denis Mack. Mussolini's Roman Empire. New York: Viking, 1976.
Smith, R. Harris. OSS: The Secret History of America's First Central Intelligence Agency. Berkeley, CA: University of California, 1972.
Stokesbury, James L. A Short History of World War I. New York: William Morrow, 1981.
Stokesbury, James L. A Short History of World War II. New York: William Morrow, 1980.
Toland, John. The Last 100 Days: The Tumultuous and Controversial Story of the Final Days of World War II in Europe. New York: Random House, Modern Library, 2003.
Treadgold, Donald W., and Herbert J. Ellison. Twentieth Century Russia. 9th ed. Boulder, CO: Westview, 2000.
Trevor-Roper, H.R. Hitler's Table Talk, 1941-1944: His Private Conversations. Translated by Norman Cameron and R.H. Stevens. New York: Enigma, 2000.
Trevor-Roper, H.R. The Testament of Adolf Hitler: The Hitler-Bormann Documents, February-April, 1945. Edited by François Genoud and translated by R.H. Stevens. London: Icon, 1962.
Weinberg, Gerhard L., Helmut Heiber, and David M. Glantz. Hitler and His Generals: Military Conferences, 1942-1945. New York: Enigma, 2003.
Wulff, Wilhelm. Zodiac and Swastika: How Astrology Guided Hitler's Germany. New York: Coward, McCann & Geoghegan, 1973.
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BOOK CHAPTERS AND PERIODICALS
"Berlin Fails to Mention Place." The New York Times, 13 September 1943.
"Berlin on 'This Open Treason.' " The Times (of London), 9 September 1943.
Brigham, Daniel T. "Arrests Reported." The New York Times, 26 July 1943.
De Felice, Renzo. Preface to Diary, 1937-1943, by Galeazzo Ciano. New York: Enigma, 2002.
"Ex-SS Man Worked for Mossad Against Egyptian Rocket Project." The Jerusalem Post, 20 September 1989.
"He is in a 'Big City,' Berlin Says." The New York Times, 14 September 1943.
"In the Ras's House." In The Mussolini Memoirs, 1942-1943, by Benito Mussolini. Edited by Raymond Klibansky and translated by Frances Lobb. London: Orion, Phoenix, 2000.
Iurato, Flavia, and Domenico Antonelli. "With Mussolini at the Campo Imperatore." In The Mussolini Memoirs, 1942-1943, by Benito Mussolini. Edited by Raymond Klibansky and translated by Frances Lobb. London: Orion, Phoenix, 2000.
Lamb, Richard. Introduction to My Rise and Fall, by Benito Mussolini. New York: Da Capo, 1998.
"Mussolini is Taken by Nazis from Italians, Berlin Reports." The New York Times, 13 September 1943.
"Mussolini was in Ventotene." The New York Times, 13 September 1943.
"Nazis' Arch-Killer Captured by Yanks." The New York Times, 18 May 1945.
Pertinax. "Trial of Mussolini Reported Planned." The New York Times, 10 September 1943.
"Text of Hitler's Broadcast on the Defection of Italy." The New York Times, 11 September 1943.
"The Rescue of Mussolini." After the Battle, no. 22 (1978): 13-31.
Tuohy, William. "SS Officer Skorzeny Wrongly Credited with Deed, Historian Says; Mussolini Rescue: A New Version." Los Angeles Times, 26 December 1987.
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German Fallschirmjägers in Action, 1939-1944. Black and white, 30 min. RZM Imports/Home Video, 1993.
Through Enemy Eyes: A Newsreel History of the Third Reich at War. Vol. 60, #760, Black and white, 49 min. International Historic Films, 1994.